Tomislav Dulić, PhD
Tomislav received his PhD in 2005 for the doctorate Utopias of Nation: Local Mass Killing in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1941-44. In 2008, he became the Director of Research at the Programme for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Uppsala University, and in 2013 the Director of the Hugo Valentin Centre. He currently works as a senior lecturer at the Centre, where he teaches several courses on a two-year Master Programme in Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
Dulić’s dissertation project dealt with the microfoundations of violence in a number of municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina perpetrated mainly by Coatian and Bosniak fascist Ustašas and Serbian nationalist Četnik formations. His research focus has since developed from an original theoretical emphasis on sociology and social-psychology combined with macro/micro-relations, to an approach that seeks to combine these with theoretical models from the field of “civil wars studies”. These issues have been explored in several articles, including one that deals with how the Yugoslav concept of a “General People’s Defence”, which drew upon the experience of partisan warfare during the Second World War and the Marxist notion of guerrilla warfare first formulated by Friedrich Engels, contributed to the war of the 1990s. A more recent article has dealt with counter-insurgency (COIN) warfare and clashes involving Yugoslav Partisans and Regiment Dänemark of the 11th Waffen-SS Panzergrenadier Division “Nordland” in Croatia during the Second World War.
Another important focus of his research concerns the relationship between mass violence and geographic space. In 2015, he published an article on the different motives of violence in the Independent State of Croatia, where he used statistics from a database that is under development and contains individual-level georeferenced information for 77,000 victims of the Jasenovac concentration camp in order to show how differences in motives also had a profound impact on the age and gender make-up of various victim groups (with the Roma group displaying an almost perfect population pyramid). In a forthcoming article, he uses the same dataset to analyse not only the socio-economic structure of different victim groups, but also to provide a spatial analysis of the Yugoslav camp system with a particular emphasis on the victimization of Jews.
Dulić’s research interest also concerns memory culture and in particular how the memory of historical atrocity influences politics and post-conflict peace-building. He has written about the late Croatian president Franjo Tuđman’s use of highly antisemitic sources in a book from 1989 that caused international condemnation; the efforts by communist Yugoslavia to create a unifying master narrative as part of the post-Second World War transition; as well as about the recently concluded process of legal rehabilitation of the Serbian Četnik leader Dragoljub Draža Mihailović.
Dulić’s ongoing project deals with the fate of some 4,500 prisoners (mostly Yugoslav partisans, who were not recognized as POWs) that were sent from Yugoslavia to Norway during the Second World War (some of which fled to Sweden). This project also represents a shift in focus from the mobile killing operations of Serbs, Muslims and Croats during the Second World War and the war of the 1990s, to the form of “institutionalized terror” that takes place in camps. Such a situation differs fundamentally from context of massacres for several reasons, most importantly the fact that there often develops a form of social interaction between prisoners and guards. As a result, perpetrator organizations seek to establish a camp system that will prevent cooperation and maintain a psychological distance between perpetrators and victims through a variety of means.
2005. Utopias of Nation. Local Mass Killing in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1941–42. Diss. Studia Historica Upsaliensia, 218. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
Articles in peer-reviewed journals
Dulić, Tomislav. "Perpetuating Fear: Insecurity, Costly Signalling and the War in Central Bosnia, 1993." Journal of Genocide Research 18, no. 4 (2016/10/01 2016): 463–84.
2015. “Danish Waffen-SS units in Yugoslavia: The fighting at Hrastovica and Glina, Autumn 1943”. Fra Krig og Fred. Accepted for publication in the 2016 issue. 13,500 words.
2015. ”Jasenovac: A (Geo)statistical Analysis of the Victims of the Shoah in the Independent State of Croatia”. Yad Vashem Studies. Accepted for publication. 8,500 words.
2013. "Sentenced “for Ideological and Political Reasons”? : The Rehabilitation of Dragoljub “Draža” Mihailović and Social Memory in Serbia." Sociologija 54, no. 4 (2012): 625-48.
2011. "De plågade oss som om de ville att vi skulle dö": Andra världskrigets jugoslaviska krigsfångar i Norge i ljuset av nytt källmaterial [They Tormented Us as if they Wanted Us to Die: The Yugoslav Prisoners of War in Norway during the Second World War in Light of New Sources]. Historisk tidskrift, 2011:4, pp. 745–770.
2010. Reprint of “Mass Killing in the Independent State of Croatia, 1941–45: A Case for Comparative Research” (2006), in A. Dirk Moses, ed., Genocide: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies (I–VI). Vol. 4., Twentieth Century Imperial Genocides: The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany (London and New York: Routledge), 342–372.
2010. “Yugoslavs in Arms: Guerrilla Tradition, Total Defence and the Ethnic Security Dilemma”, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 62, no. 7, 2010, 1051–1072. Co-published with R. Kostić.
2009. “Mapping Out the ‘Wasteland’: Testimonies from the Serbian Commissariat for Refugees in the Service of Tudjman’s Revisionism”, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol. 23, no. 2: 263–284.
2006. “Mass Killing in the Independent State of Croatia, 1941–45: A Case for Comparative Research”, Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 8. no. 3: 255–281. Reprinted in 2010; above.
2004. “A reply to Rummel”. Journal of Peace Research 41, no. 1 (2004): 105–06.
2004. “Tito’s Slaughterhouse: A Critical Analysis of Rummel’s Work on Democide”. Journal of Peace Research 41, no. 1: 85–102.
Book chapters, reviews, etc.
2015. ”Forging Brotherhood and Unity: War Propaganda and Transitional Justice in Yugoslavia, 1941–48”. In Yeomans, Rory (ed.) The Utopia of Terror: Life, Death, and Everyday Experience in the Ustasha State. University of Rochester Press. Accepted for publication. 8,500 words, 18 pp.
2015. ”Rethinking Violence: Motives and Modes of Mass Murder in the Independent State of Croatia, 1941–45”. In Carmichael, Cathie and Richard C. Maquire, The Routledge History of Genocide (Routledge): 151–65.
2014. ”The Purpose of Genocide: Control, Ideology and Mass Violence in Historical Perspective”. In Ericsson, Peter, Fredrik Thisner, Patrik Winton and Andreas Åkerlund (red.) Allt på ett bräde, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet. 419-429.
2012. "Fascism's European Empire : Italian Occupation During the Second World War." [REVIEW]. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 14, no. 4 (2012): 469-71.
2011. "Gacko massacre, June 1941", Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, URL: http://www.massviolence.org/Gacko-massacre-June-1941, ISSN 1961-9898.
2010. “Ethnic Violence in Occupied Yugoslavia: Mass Killing from Above and Below”, in D. Djokić and J. Ker-Lindsay, New Perspectives on Yugoslavia: Key Issues and Controversies (London: Routledge), 82-99.
2009. “Från Bleiburg till Jasenovac: den serbisk-kroatiska historikerstriden och andra världskrigets katastrofer” [From Bleiburg to Jasenovac: The Serbo-Croatian Struggle over History and the Catastrophies of the Second World War], in Klas-Göran Karlsson and Ulf Zander, Katastrofernas århundrade [The Century of Catastrophies] (Lund: Studentlitteratur).
2004. ”Spricka mellan USA och EU om Balkan” [Division between the USA and EU on the Balkans]. Internationella studier, no. 2: 20–25. (With Roland Kostić).
2004. ”Världarnas mötesplats: en författare, en bro och det bosniska våldets karaktär” [The meeting-place of worlds: An author, a bridge and the character of Bosnian violence]. In Edquist, Samuel, ed., En helt annan historia: tolv historiografiska uppsatser. Opuscula historica Upsaliensia, 31, 73–94 (Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala univ.; Swedish Science Press, distr.)
1999. ”Balkan i framtiden” [The Balkans in the future]. Internationella studier, no. 3: 8–11.
1999. ”Kosovo och det förflutna: nationalistiska projekt och kollektivistisk tradition” [Kosovo and the past: Nationalist projects and a collectivist tradition]. Multiethnica, nr. 24/25: 36–40.
Articles in educational literature
2011. “Peace Research and Source Criticism: Using Historical Methodology to Improve Information Gathering and Analysis”, in K. Höglund and M. Öberg eds., Understanding Peace Research: Methods and Challenges (London and New York, 2011), pp. 35–46.
2009. “Serbien: en stats- och nationsbildning i kris” [Serbia: State and Nation Building in Crisis], in F. Björklund and J. Rodin (eds.), Det nya Östeuropa – stat och nation i förändring [The New Eastern Europe – State and Nation in Change (Lund: Studentlitteratur).
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